diff --git a/grains.rst b/grains.rst index 6bc248c79bb6d691fbfeddbc13d8e0d0d9c33f5c..0e4edbf92b3532ac7c61cd01d228393e7c259344 100644 --- a/grains.rst +++ b/grains.rst @@ -110,31 +110,191 @@ Additive * 1822 Joseph Fourier showed that some functions can be written as a sum of sines * Using harmonics we can build up a variety of timbres +* Theoretically we could use arbitrary many sines to reconstruct almost all sounds + +---- + +:data-x: r0 +:data-y: r500 +:data-scale: 0.1 + +Harmonics +========= .. image:: img/harmonics.png - :height: 150px + :height: 500px :align: right -* Theoretically we could use arbitrary many sines to reconstruct almost all sounds -* Practically this is impossible +---- + + +Contra +====== + +* Gets ressource intensive very fast * Sound is often too clean, to sterile +* Its not easy to find good sounds, without FFT + +---- + +:data-x: r0 +:data-y: r500 +:data-scale: 0.1 + +Saw Wave +======== + +.. image:: img/sawtooth.png + :height: 350px + :align: right + +---- + +Basic Flowchart +=============== + +.. image:: img/atom.svg + :height: 500px + :align: center + +---- + +Envelopes +========= + +* eternal sound vs defined notes +* most common ist ADSR (attack - delay - sustain - release) + +.. image:: img/envelope.svg + :height: 400px + :align: right ---- +Combined Flowchart +================== + +.. image:: img/env_osc.svg + :height: 450px + :align: right + + +---- + + Subtractive =========== * Source with a broad spectrum -> noise * Filter too thin out spectrum -* Gives much more "natural" sound than additive synthesis -* Restricted in what is possible -* Needs lots of experience -* Used in a lot of analog synthesizer +* More "natural" sound +* Modular analog synthesizer +* Needs good filters + + +---- + +Frequency Modulation +==================== + +* Modulate frequency inlet with an other oscilator +* 1973 John Chowning +* Multiple oscilators can be arbitraily combined to fm each other +* Lots of possibilities +* Difficult to find a specific sound + +---- + +FM Spectrum +=========== + +Additional bands appear + +.. image:: img/FM.png + :height: 350px + :align: right + +---- + +Yamaha DX7 +========================= + +* Uses 6 sine oscilators +* In 32 combinations + +.. image:: img/DX7.png + :height: 350px + :align: right + +---- + +Amplitude Modulation +==================== + +* Works similar to FM, but uses amplitude slot +* doesn't have the rich possibilities of FM + +---- + +Physical Modeling +================= + +* Best known is Karplus-Strong + * Uses Delaylines + * Simulates Strings and Flutes, both of which base on sine waves reflected back at the boundary +* Various Oscilators are used Van-der-Poole, Chua or strange attractors like Henon, Lorentz +* Chaotic Phenomena in general + +---- + +Granular Synthesis +================== + +* also a physical model +* Denis Gabor 1947 : Acoustical quanta and the theory of hearing +* Based on grains or wave packages +* Analog to photons for light, proposed quanta for sound +* Psychoaccoustic : ear like the eye has resolution limits, granular synthesis plays with this + +---- + +A grain +======= + +.. image:: img/truax.gif + :height: 200px + :align: right + +Has a source wave (with its own frequency), wraped in an envelope. + +Both have various parameter that can be changed and influence the timbre. + +---- + +Heaps of grains +=============== + + +There is seldomly one grain, but mostly lots of grains. + +How dense, homogenous, etc. this grain clouds are changes the timbre and the way we perceive the sound. + +---- + +Pioneers of Granular Synthesis +============================== + +* Curtis Roads : Microsound +* Iannis Xenakis +* Trevor Whishart +* B Truax +* Brandtsegg, Saue, Johansen : Partikkel Opcode in CSound ---- CSound ====== + ---- History @@ -142,10 +302,7 @@ History * 1957 first computer sound synthesis at Bell Labs by Max Mathews -> MUSIC I * Until 1970s MUSIC 11 by Barry Vercoe * Around 1986 Barry Vercoe wrote the first CSound based on C -* CSound constantly incorporates new ideas like - * MIDI / OSC for performances - * GUI - System for controllers - * Python for Live Coding +* CSound constantly incorporates new ideas ---- @@ -179,6 +336,11 @@ Freeware * Pure Data * Supercollider +Commercial +---------- + +* Max/MSP + ---- :data-scale: 1 diff --git a/img/DX7.png b/img/DX7.png new file mode 100644 index 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000..1d6a1a2b606b2b2fe8a5251f7eb1e5f35dabebf0 Binary files /dev/null and b/img/DX7.png differ diff --git a/img/FM.png b/img/FM.png new file mode 100644 index 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000..49c05eef4318337a2d9628cd6c1f731227c477a2 Binary files /dev/null and b/img/FM.png differ diff --git a/img/atom.PNG b/img/atom.PNG new file mode 100644 index 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000..b4c510c7b5a862bb64061b1e634f7b1e1c14685a Binary files /dev/null and b/img/atom.PNG differ diff --git a/img/atom.svg b/img/atom.svg new file mode 100644 index 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000..9948953e6de1ae855702b76c903b53d6200094a2 --- /dev/null +++ b/img/atom.svg @@ -0,0 +1,120 @@ + + + \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/img/env_osc.svg b/img/env_osc.svg new file mode 100644 index 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000..c18b93092481a14f758969d3ec5a2f327447f8da --- /dev/null +++ b/img/env_osc.svg @@ -0,0 +1,120 @@ + + + \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/img/envelope.svg b/img/envelope.svg new file mode 100644 index 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000..5309976e8a7d3eed06642c575bef5b45689d2ba2 --- /dev/null +++ b/img/envelope.svg @@ -0,0 +1,98 @@ + + + \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/img/sawtooth.png b/img/sawtooth.png new file mode 100644 index 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000..19006b84df7799ed70bc829a41e8f73aab371aca Binary files /dev/null and b/img/sawtooth.png differ diff --git a/img/truax.gif b/img/truax.gif new file mode 100644 index 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000..3b307568080c566f981b28e232954c93ae33d8ee Binary files /dev/null and b/img/truax.gif differ